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Tezcatlipoca: Trickster and ultimate Deity brings archaeological facts into the physique of scholarship on “the lord of the smoking mirror,” essentially the most very important Aztec deities. whereas iconographic and textual assets from sixteenth-century chroniclers and codices have contributed vastly to the knowledge of Aztec non secular ideals and practices, participants to this quantity show the various methods fabric proof expands on those conventional assets.

The interlocking complexities of Tezcatlipoca’s nature, a number of roles, and metaphorical attributes illustrate the level to which his impact penetrated Aztec trust and social motion throughout all degrees of overdue Postclassic imperative Mexican tradition. Tezcatlipoca examines the result of archaeological investigations—objects like obsidian mirrors, gold, bells, public stone monuments, or even a mosaic skull—and unearths new insights into the very best deity of the Aztec pantheon and his position in Aztec culture.

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For work that reduce or miss Christ’s genitals, see Mellinkoff (1993, 2: plates III. four, III. 37, IX. 24). See additionally Marrow (1979, 68–69). eleven. a lot has been made, by means of those that wish to romanticize Aztec human sacrifice, of the youth’s seeming freedom to roam at will in this time. Sahagún (1950–82, publication II: sixty nine) contends, besides the fact that, that the sufferer was once heavily not just by means of 8 servants but in addition by way of 4 “constables” whose responsibility most likely used to be to make sure that he wouldn't flee. Durán (1971, 126) identifies all twelve of those attendants as guards who have been current “to hinder him from fleeing. ” in line with him, “These guards have been regularly alert, their eyes upon him. If [the guy controlled] to fall, the negligent shield took his position” (ibid. ). 12. For illustrations of Aztec ceramic flutes, see Guggenheim Museum (2004, nos. 247, 248). thirteen. at the impersonator’s 4 “wives,” see Durán (1971, 126). 14. See Klein (2001, 220–21), for a dialogue of the facts that Tezcatlipoca used to be bisexual. 15. certainly one of Tezcatlipoca’s names used to be Moyocoyatzin, “Capricious One. ” The god’s embodiment of the fickle, uncontrollable nature of destiny no doubt underlay his bisexuality. sixteen. Sahagún says the following that the pyramid was once referred to as Tlacochcalco, yet extra on within the comparable paintings (Sahagún 1979 [1575–78], 1: one hundred fifty five) he omits the right kind identify of the pyramid. See additionally Sahagún (1950–82, booklet III: 10, 71), the place he additionally supplies another spelling for the positioning: Tlapitzauhcan. 17. 3 of the illustrations to Sahagún’s textual content which are essentially out of order depict a status guy wearing what seem like white longjohns bring to a halt on the elbows and knees and a tall headdress with eco-friendly plumes on the most sensible. The black stripes painted around the person’s face, including the tlachialoni (magic reflect) held in his hand, determine the dress as Tezcatlipoca’s. the photographs needs to check with an occasion the textual content says happened presently after the impersonator had discovered to play his flute. Sahagún says that at present the Aztec ruler Moteuczoma embellished the impersonator with lavish and dear clothing and embellishes, pasting his head with feathers and portray his face black. 18. An instance of flutes linked to the male intercourse seems in Herdt (1981, 233, 268, 271, 283); with the phallus, in Reichel-Dolmatoff (1971 [1968], 112, 115). Herdt (1981, 268) states that for the Sambia of recent Guinea the flute represents the phallus now not because the penis itself yet as “a metaphor and signal for it. ” As does Herdt (ibid. , 283) for the Sambia, ReichelDolmatoff (1971 [1968], 168) notes that Desana flutes are frequently paired, with a smaller flute 157 158 G ender A mbiguit y and the Toxcatl S acrifice understood because the lady counterpart to a bigger, male flute. See additionally Murphy and Murphy (1985 [1974], 119–20) at the phallic which means of the Mundurucu karókó, an extended, hole wood tube they determine as “clearly a phallic image within the vintage experience of the time period. ” 19. Siméon (1977 [1885], 639) says the basis phrases of Tlapitzauayan are pitzaua and yan (place).

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