Download E-books Ancient Synagogues - Archaeology and Art: New Discoveries and Current Research (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1; The Near and Middle East) PDF

By Rachel Hachlili

"Ancient Synagogues - Archaeology and artwork. New Discoveries and present learn" provides archaeological facts - the structure, paintings, Jewish symbols, zodiac, biblical stories, inscriptions, and cash which attest to the significance of the synagogue. whilst regarded as an entire, these kind of items of proof verify the centrality of the synagogue establishment within the lifetime of the Jewish groups throughout Israel and within the Diaspora. most significantly, the synagogue and its artwork and structure performed a strong position within the protection of the basic ideals, customs, and traditions of the Jewish humans following the destruction of the second one Temple and the lack of Jewish sovereignty within the Land of Israel. The e-book additionally incorporates a complement of the record at the Qazion excavation."

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A couple of nook (heart-shaped) columns is located on the Galilean synagogues of Arbel, Barʿam, Capernaum (a pair additionally within the courtyard corners), H. ʿAmudim, Meiron, and Wadi Hamam (Fig. IV-28:2, 36:2–4). a 3rd vertical aisle is a phenomenon of Galilean synagogues that's came across additionally on the moment Temple synagogue at Gamla (Fig. II-1e). The Korazim corridor is split by way of twelve columns on pedestals and on a stylobate (Fig. IV-13b). 4 columns are equipped at the japanese and western partitions, and 4 (a horizontal row) at the northern wall. Seven column pedestals have been present in situ, 3 in the constitution, and are lacking. The distances among the columns is asymmetric (Yeivin 2000:10*–11*, plan five, Fig. 45). a hundred and forty bankruptcy 4 determine IV-12. Capernaum: a. corridor inside; b. façade. synagogue structure and ornamentation determine IV-13. Façade and corridor of synagogue, Korazim. 141 142 bankruptcy 4 determine IV-14. inside of synagogue, Susiya. rows of columns divide the corridor right into a nave and aisles at a few synagogues of the Golan and Beth Sheʾan parts, in addition to these within the south. the various corridor columns help a moment story—a gallery, clerestory—or a raised roof, for example at Gush Halav and Korazim (Figs. IV-4, 5). The south Judea synagogues of Eshtemoʿa, Susiya, ʿAnim, and Maʿon i've got no columns and hence no aisles (Figs. IV-14, 15). Columns resting on pedestals with Attic bases are universal in lots of of the Galilee synagogues yet are infrequent in Golan synagogues (Figs. IV-12, 13); the Golan columns tend to be with out pedestals and a few, as at Kanaf and Umm el-Qanatir, don't have any bases. a few embellished pedestals, frequently with Jewish symbols resembling the menorah, are came upon at ʿEn Nashut (Fig. IV-16) (Hachlili 1995:no. 8). 1. 2. 1 Capitals The capitals of the synagogue corridor columns are elaborately embellished. 3 major orders are established in synagogue structure: Corinthian capitals, frequently titanic, are the most typical (Fig. IV-17); Ionic capitals, together with easy Ionic, elaborately ornamented diagonal Ionic (Figs. IV-18–19), and the ‘Golan’ Ionic (Fig. IV-20a); and Doric-Roman capitals. those various orders are used to help assorted varieties of architraves. 1. 2. 1. 1 Corinthian Capitals the main studied Corinthian capitals are these of the synagogue of Capernaum (Fig. IV-17), that are present in the synagogue inside and within the courtyard, surmounting pilasters, doorjambs, and maybe the upper-story columns. Twelve capitals and nook capitals survived. regardless of their uniform layout and workmanship, they're categorized through Fisher (1984, 1990:69–73) into 4 teams, in line with changes within the cauliculi development and different components. He dates the Corinthian capitals of the Capernaum synagogue among the center and the tip of the third century CE. Bloadhorn (1989:51–52, synagogue structure and ornamentation determine IV-15. inside of synagogue and façade, Eshtemoʿa. 143 144 bankruptcy 4 determine IV-16. adorned pedestals, ʿEn Nashut. determine IV-17. Corinthian capitals, Capernaum.

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